MORPHOLOGICAL POLYMORPHISM OF Canarium urceus urceus (Linnaues), 1758 (MOLLUSCA: GASTROPODA) IN MARINE AREAS OF CARAGA REGION, PHILIPPINES

Fabio C. Ruaza, Miraluna L. Herrera, Romell A. Seronay

Abstract


A total of 877 individuals of Canarium urceus urceus were collected, measured and evaluated for their morphological attributes in the four (4) sites in Caraga Region: Lianga and Cortes Surigao del Sur; Nasipit, Agusan del Norte and Claver, Surigao del Norte. The shells were morphometrically measures in terms of its shell length (SL), body whorl length (BWL), shell width (SW), shell depth (SD), shell outer lip thickness (SOLT), aperture length (AL), operculum width (OW) and operculum length (OL). The morphometric comparison in different sites detected significant differences in all shell characters across sampling sites. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that the most classified characters are the BWL, AL and SL across sampling sites. The most classified characters for male, female and imposex are the OW and SW according to canonical discriminate analysis (CDA). The operculum of imposex is much wider compared to female and male. However, the male gastropod operculum is wider compared to a normal female. In terms of SW of the gastropod, the females have much wider SW and globular than males that are slender in shape.

Keywords


canarium urceus urceus, morphometry, multivariate analysis

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abbott, R.T. (1949). Sexual dimorphism in Indo-Pacific Strombus. Nautilus, 63, 58-61.

Abbott, R.T. (1960). The genus Strombus in the Indo-Pacific. Indo-Pacifica Mollusca, 1(2), 33- 144.

Buston, P., Munday P. & Warner R. (8 April, 2004). Evolutionary biology: sex change and relative body size in animals. Nature, 428. doi: 10.1038/nature 02512a.

Carvajal-Rodriguez, A., Conde-Padin, P. & Rolan-Alvarez, E. (2005). Decomposing shell form into size and shape by geometric morphometric methods in two sympatric ecotypes of Littorina saxatilis. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 7(4), 313-318. doi: 10.1093/mollus/eyi037.

Chaparro, O. & Flores, M. (2002). Reproductive output of Crepidula fecunda females: Distribution of energy in the production of gametes and capsular walls. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 36(4), 661-673. doi: 10.1080/00288330.2002.9517122

Charnov, E. & Bull, J. (09 March, 1989). Non-Fisherian sex ratios with sex change and environmental sex determination. Nature, 338, 148–150. doi:10.1038/338148a0.

Cob, Z., Bujang, J., Ghaffar, M. & Arshed, A. (2007). Diversity and population structure characteristics of Strombus (Mesogastropod, Strombidae) in Johor Straits. In A.R. Sahibin, (eds.). Natural resource utilization and environmental preservation: issues and challenge. Proceeding of the 2nd Regional Symposium on Natural Environment and Natural Resources, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 2: 198-205.

Collin, R. (2000). Sex change, reproduction and development of Crepidula adunca and C. lingulata (Gastropoda: Calyptraeidae). The Veliger, 43(1), 24–33.

Currey, C. & Hughes, F. (1982). Strength of the dogwhelk Nucella lapillus (Linnaeus) and the winkle Littorina littorea (Linnaeus) from different habitats. Journal of Animal Ecology, 51 (1), 47–56.

Dunithan, A., Jacquemin, S. & Pyron, M. (2012). Morphology of Elimia livescens (Mollusca:Pleuroceridae) in Indian, U.S.A. covaries with environmental variation. American Malacological Society, 30(1), 1-7. doi: 10.4003/006.030.0110.

Erlambang, T. & Siregar Y. (1995). Ecological aspects and marketing of dog conch Strombus canarium Linne, 1758 at Bintan Island, Sumatra, Indonesia. Special Publication Phuket Marine Biology Centre. 15: 129- 131.

Hoagland K. (1978). Protandry and the evolution of environmentally mediated sex change: a study of the Mollusca. Malacologia, 17(2), 365–391.

Huet, M., Fiorini, P., & Stroben E. (1995). Comparison of imposex response in three prosobanch species. Hydrobiologia, 309, 29-35.

Klingenberg, C. P. (2011): MorphoJ: an integrated software package for geometric morphometrics. Molecular Ecology Resources, 11(2), 353–357. doi:10.1111/ j.1755-0998.2010.02924.x

Latiolais, J.M. (2003). The phylogenetic underpinnings for spatial patterns of morphological disparity: analyses using strombid gastropods. (Unpublished Masters Thesis). Louisiana State University. Availabe at http:// etd.lsu.edu/docs/available/etd-1112103-135018/ unrestricted/Latiolais_thesis.pdf.

Poppe, G. (2008). Philippine Marine Mollusks. Volume 1: Gastropoda. Conchbooks. Germany. 758 pp.

Reed, S. (1995). Sexual trimorphism in Strombus luhuanus Linné, 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) at Shirahama, Japan. Journal of Shellfish Research, 14, 159-160.

Rohlf, F.J. & Slice, D.E. (1990) Extensions of the Procrustes method for the optimal superimposition of landmarks. Systematic Zoology, 39, 40–59.

Rundle, S. D., Spicer, J.I., Coleman, R. A., Vosper, J., & Soane, J. (2004). Environmental calcium modifies induced defenses in snails. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. 271, 67-70. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2003.0106

Trussell, G. (1997). Phenotypic selection in an intertidal snail: effects of a catastrophic storm. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 151, 73-79.

Vermeij G. (1980). Gastropod growth rate, allometry, and adult size: environmental implications. In: Skeletal growth in aquatic organisms. (D.C.Rhoads & R.A. Lutz, eds), 379–394. Plenum Press, New York.

Yousif, M. (2012). Warped ideas: geometric morphometrics as a complementary technique for studying gastropod shell morphology. (Unpublished Masters Thesis). Mcmaster University. Hamilton, Ontario.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.